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汽车减震器的常见故障与维修方法

来源:http://www.jnrunao.com/ 日期:2020-10-21 发布人:runao
为了使车架与车身的振动迅速衰减,改善汽车行驶的平顺性和舒适性,汽车悬架系统上一般都装有减震器,目前汽车上广泛采用的是双向作用筒式减震器。
In order to reduce the vibration of the frame and the body rapidly and improve the ride comfort of the car, the shock absorber is usually installed on the suspension system of the vehicle. At present, the bidirectional acting cylinder shock absorber is widely used in the automobile.
减震器是汽车使用过程中的易损配件,减震器工作好坏,将直接影响汽车行驶的平稳性和其它机件的寿命,因此我们应使减震器经常处于良好的工作状态。可用下列方法检验减震器的工作是否良好。
Shock absorber is a vulnerable part in the process of automobile use. The working quality of shock absorber will directly affect the stability of vehicle driving and the life of other parts. Therefore, we should make the shock absorber in good working condition. The following methods can be used to check whether the shock absorber works well.
1.使汽车在道路条件较差的路面上行驶10km后停车,用手摸减震器外壳,如果不够热,说明减震器内部无阻力,减震器不工作。此时,可加入适当的润滑油,再进行试验,若外壳发热,则为减震器内部缺油,应加足油;否则,说明减震器失效。
1. Stop the car after driving for 10km on the road with poor road conditions, and touch the shock absorber shell by hand. If it is not hot enough, it means that there is no resistance inside the shock absorber and the shock absorber does not work. At this time, appropriate lubricating oil can be added, and then the test is conducted. If the shell is heated, the shock absorber is short of oil, and sufficient oil should be added; otherwise, the shock absorber is invalid.
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2.用力按下保险杠,然后松开,如果汽车有2~3次跳跃,则说明减震器工作良好。
2. Press down the bumper and release it. If the car jumps for 2-3 times, the shock absorber works well.
3.当汽车缓慢行驶而紧急制动时,若汽车振动比较剧烈,说明减震器有问题。
3. When the car is running slowly and braking urgently, if the vehicle vibrates violently, it indicates that there is something wrong with the shock absorber.
4.拆下减震器将其直立,并把下端连接环夹于台钳上,用力拉压减振杆数次,此时应有稳定的阻力,往上拉(复原)的阻力应大于向下压时的阻力,如阻力不稳定或无阻力,可能是减震器内部缺油或阀门零件损坏,应进行修复或更换零件。
4. Remove the shock absorber, put it upright, clamp the lower connecting ring on the vise, and pull and press the shock absorber rod several times. At this time, there should be stable resistance. The resistance of pulling upward (restoring) should be greater than that of pressing down. If the resistance is unstable or no resistance, it may be due to the lack of oil in the shock absorber or the valve parts are damaged. Repair or replace the parts.
在确定减震器有问题或失效后,应先查看减震器是否漏油或有陈旧性漏油的痕迹。
After the shock absorber is determined to be defective or invalid, the shock absorber should be checked for oil leakage or signs of old oil leakage.
油封垫圈、密封垫圈破裂损坏,贮油缸盖螺母松动。可能是油封、密封垫圈损坏失效,应更换新的密封件。如果仍然不能消除漏油,应拉出减震器,若感到有发卡或轻重不一时,再进一步检查活塞与缸筒间的间隙是否过大,减震器活塞连杆有无弯曲,活塞连杆表面和缸筒是否有划伤或拉痕。
The oil seal gasket and sealing washer are broken and damaged, and the nut of oil storage cylinder cover is loose. It is possible that the oil seal and sealing washer are damaged and invalid, so new sealing parts should be replaced. If the oil leakage still cannot be eliminated, the shock absorber should be pulled out. If it is felt that the gap between the piston and the cylinder barrel is too large, whether the piston connecting rod of the shock absorber is bent, and whether there are scratches or drawing marks on the surface of the piston connecting rod and the cylinder barrel.
如果减震器没有漏油的现象,则应检查减震器连接销、连接杆、连接孔、橡胶衬套等是否有损坏、脱焊、破裂或脱落之处。若上述检查正常,则应进一步分解减震器,检查活塞与缸筒间的配合间隙是否过大,缸筒有无拉伤,阀门密封是否良好,阀瓣与阀座贴合是否严密,以及减震器的伸张弹簧是否过软或折断,根据情况采取修磨或换件的办法修理。
If there is no oil leakage in the shock absorber, check whether the connecting pin, connecting rod, connecting hole and rubber bushing of the shock absorber are damaged, desoldered, cracked or fallen off. If the above inspection is normal, the shock absorber shall be further disassembled to check whether the fit clearance between the piston and the cylinder barrel is too large, whether the cylinder cylinder is strained, whether the valve seal is good, whether the valve disc and valve seat are tightly connected, and whether the extension spring of the shock absorber is too soft or broken, and repair by grinding or replacing parts according to the situation.
另外,减震器在实际使用中会出现发出响声的故障,这主要是由于减震器与钢板弹簧、车架或轴相碰撞,胶垫损坏或脱落以及减震器防尘筒变形,油液不足等原因引起的,应查明原因,予以修理。
In addition, the shock absorber will make noise in actual use, which is mainly caused by the collision between shock absorber and leaf spring, frame or shaft, damage or fall off of rubber pad, deformation of shock absorber dust cylinder and insufficient oil. The causes should be found out and repaired.
减震器在进行检查修复后应在专门试验台上进行工作性能试验,当阻力频率在100±1mm时,其伸张行程和压缩行程的阻力应符合规定。如解放CAl091伸张行程阻力为2156~2646N,压缩行程阻力为392~588N;东风车伸张行程阻力为2450~3038N,压缩行程阻力为490~686N。如果没有试验条件,我们还可以采用一种经验做法,即用一铁棒穿入减震器下端吊环内,用双脚踩住其两端,双手握住上吊环往复拉2~4次,当向上拉时阻力很大,向下压时不感到费力,而且拉伸的阻力与修理前相比有所恢复,无空程感,则表明减震器基本正常。
After the shock absorber is inspected and repaired, the working performance test shall be carried out on a special test bench. When the resistance frequency is 100 ± 1 mm, the resistance of the stretching stroke and compression stroke shall meet the requirements. For example, the maximum resistance of the stretching stroke of Jiefang cal091 is 2156 ~ 2646n, the maximum resistance of compression stroke is 392 ~ 588n, the maximum resistance of Dongfeng vehicle is 2450 ~ 3038n, and the maximum resistance of compression stroke is 490 ~ 686n. If there is no test condition, we can also adopt an empirical method, that is, use an iron bar to penetrate into the lower ring of the shock absorber, step on both ends with both feet, hold the upper ring with both hands and pull it repeatedly for 2 ~ 4 times. When pulling upward, the resistance is large, and when pressing downward, it does not feel laborious. Moreover, the tensile resistance is restored compared with that before repair, and there is no sense of space, which indicates that the shock absorber is basically normal.
此文关键词: 济南奥迪专修  

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